Foot and ankle soft tissue injuries often preventable
All sports and exercise, especially contact sports and those with quick starts, such as hurdling and running races, can cause foot and ankle sprains and strains—the most common of sports injuries. These types of soft tissue injuries are often the result of not warming up correctly, having muscle fatigue that makes you more prone to injury, working out or being active in unsafe conditions (such as a slippery surface), and wearing improper shoes.
Understanding strains vs. sprains
A sprain is a stretch or tear to one or more ligaments in the foot or ankle. Ligaments are the rubber band-like bands of tissue that connect one bone to another and stabilize the joints by binding them together. The ligaments give the foot and ankle joint stability by limiting side-to-side movement and enabling walking and running. Along with the lower leg, they form a complex supporting structure for the body. The ligaments normally stretch within their limits and return to normal position. When they are overstretched they can tear.
Sprains occur when there is a fall or blow to the body that knocks the joint out of position and in the worst cases, ruptures the supporting ligaments. A sprain often occurs in the ankle when the joint rolls, twists or turns in an awkward way. The amount of pain you experience depends on the degree to which the ligament stretched or tore. Instability occurs when the ligament has completely torn or the joint has dislocated.
Strains, by comparison, involve stretching or tearing of muscles or tendons rather than ligaments. Tendons attach the muscles to the bones. Strains also occur from twisting, pulling or tearing a muscle or tendon during overstretching or over contraction.
Symptoms of foot and ankle sprains and strains
Sprains and strains have similar symptoms, such as:
- Difficulty walking on the injured foot or ankle
- Spasming (strains)
When you have a mild sprain or strain, you can usually manage your symptoms at home with anti-inflammatory medication for pain and swelling along with RICE (rest, ice, compression, elevation) therapy. If your symptoms get worse, however, and you experience increased pain, redness or swelling, you may need to see a doctor for proper diagnosis. Your doctor may recommend an X-ray, ultrasound, and/or MRI to further examine the area for fracture and other possible causes of your symptoms.
Treatment may involve pain medication, immobilization (keeping the foot or ankle still with a brace or cast) and physical therapy. With severe sprains and strains, surgery may be an option.