- University of Pennsylvania
- Yale University
- Princeton University
Awards & Honors
- 1995 – American Cancer Society Junior Faculty Award
- 1995 – Pew Scholar in the Biomedical Sciences Award
- 2000 – Who's Who in America
- 2003 – Highlighted Project, 2003 DoD Prostate Cancer Research Program Report
- 2008 – Special Achievement Award, Chinese Society for Clinical Oncology
- 2008 – Designated One of the 250 Historically Most Influential Alumni of Princeton University (#30 under Science & Mathematics)
- 2010-2017 – Editor in Chief, Cancer Research (flagship journal of the American Association for Cancer Research)
- 2011, 2014 – Highlighted ‘In the Pipeline’ Project, DoD Breast Cancer Research Program Annual Report
- 2011 – European Academy of Tumor Immunology
- 2012 – Inventor of the Year, Sidney Kimmel Cancer Center, Jefferson Health System
- 2017 – The Havens Chair for Biomedical Research
By studying disease modifier genes we seek to develop new principles to treat cancer, diabetes, autoimmune disorders and cardiovascular disease. Currently most biomedical research focuses on understanding disease pathways. We seek to understand broad-acting disease modifier pathways that determine disease severity, an understudied area from which many useful drugs such as NSAIDs and statins are found. A major thrust of our present work focuses on modifiers of inflammatory processes that contribute significantly and broadly to the severity of age-associated diseases. In our main project, we developed a new class of drugs that, by inhibiting tryptophan catabolism, can recruit the immune system to help chemotherapy and radiotherapy eradicate advanced cancers, including those such as pancreatic cancer that are often refractory to therapy.In other projects with our Lankenau collaborators, we are developing new agents that target autoimmune disorders, neurodegeneration, and diabetes and obesity-associated complications that promote cardiovascular disease.
Our laboratory is interested primarily in cancer modifier genes, pathogenic inflammation and immunology, and preclinical drug discovery and development that target new principles. We use transgenic mouse models to learn how modifier genes act to drive disease, as well as inform new medicinal strategies to prognose and treat cancer and other age-associated diseases.
Localized cancers are often curable if they are detected before progression to invasive status, but many patients diagnosed with cancer already have invasive disease. What factors dictate malignant progression, and how might they be therapeutically exploited? Molecular therapeutics that target key oncogene and tumor suppressor pathways show some clinical promise, but they have demonstrated limited efficacy to date. Cancer modifier pathways that influence the immune microenvironment of tumor cells may strongly influence clinical course. Indeed, the most exciting area of cancer research today is in immunotherapies that can enable the potential of the patient’s immune system to eradicate advanced cancers. Accordingly, the new therapeutic strategies we have discovered are based on modulating the host immune system to help it clear disease, rather than attacking diseased cells directly.
At LIMR our group has pioneered insights into why tryptophan is so important to cancer cells. A major thrust of this work has been to develop drugs that block IDO and TDO enzymes that consume tryptophan. We have shown how blocking those enzymes can stimulate immune attacks where chemotherapy is ineffective. We have extended the properties of these tryptophan-signaling inhibitors (TSI), part of a larger class of drugs we call immunometabolic adjuvants, through genetic investigations illustrating their significance in the eradication of metastatic cancers.
Our latest studies reveal that TSI can not only stimulate immune attacks but also relieve pathogenic vasculogenesis (blood supply) in metastatic cancers and other diseases characterized by abnormal blood supply (e.g., diabetic retinopathy, age-associated macular degeneration). Lastly, the laboratory is also engaged in studying how the IDO2 enzyme, discovered at LIMR, works to sustain GI cancers and autoimmunity differently from IDO or TDO.
Our RhoB investigations derive from our long-standing leadership in studies of this Ras/Rho family small GTPase in cell stress signaling and pathogenic inflammation. Recent work in collaboration with Drs. Lisa Laury-Kleintop and Laura Mandik-Nayak at Lankenau has illuminated exciting new findings that show how RhoB broadly sustains autoimmune, ocular, metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. In particular, a new therapeutic antibody has been developed to target RhoB, which may be useful to treat a variety of inflammation-related diseases in medicine, including autoimmune disorders, atherosclerosis, diabetes, kidney disease and ocular disorders. In other works emerging from our RhoB studies, we also are developing the medicinal properties of an FDA-approved formulant called meglumine, which we discovered to exert anti-diabetic effects associated with insulin-independent pathways associated with anti-inflammation and increased muscle stamina.
Our Bin1 investigations originating in cancer suppression studies led us to discover that it regulates inflammation and is important for sustaining effective antitumor immunity. Recently, in preclinical studies we found that its genetic blockade can limit the development of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD, including ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease). Building on this finding, we have identified a Bin1 antibody that can treat this disorder in a preclinical IBD model. Interestingly, other biomedical laboratories focused on neurodegeneration recently found that Bin1 gene variants that elevate Bin1 protein levels in the brain confer a high risk of late-onset Alzheimer’s disease, second only to ApoE variants in risk. We recently reported evidence that our Bin1 antibody that limits IBD also exhibits therapeutic properties in a preclinical model of Alzheimer’s disease, building on the idea that targeting Bin1 may be effective in limiting onset of this common neurodegenerative disorder.
- James DuHadaway, research lab associate
- Sunil Thomas, PhD, research assistant professor
- Cancer Immunotherapy: Immune Suppression and Tumor Growth, 2nd ed. Prendergast GC, Jaffee EM, eds. Academic Press; 2013.
- IL-8 correlates with nonresponse to neoadjuvant nivolumab in HPV positive HNSCC via a potential extracellular vesicle miR-146a mediated mechanism. Hill BL, Calder AN, … Prendergast GC, et al. Mol Carcinog. 2023 Sep;62(9):1428-1443.
- IDO1 and inflammatory neovascularization: bringing new blood to tumor-promoting inflammation. Muller AJ, Mondal A, Dey S, Prendergast GC. Front. Oncol. Sec. 2023 Apr 27;13:1165298. doi: 10.3389/fonc.2023.1165298
- A Brief Overview of Cancer Vaccines. Muller AJ, Thomas S, Prendergast GC. Cancer J. 2023 Jan-Feb 01;29(1):34-37.
- The Immunomodulatory Enzyme IDO2 Mediates Autoimmune Arthritis through a Nonenzymatic Mechanism. Merlo LMF, Peng W, DuHadaway JB, Montgomery JD, Prendergast GC, Muller AJ, Mandik-Nayak L. J Immunol. 2022 Feb 1;208(3):571-581.
- The FDA approved anthelmintic Pyrvinium Pamoate inhibits pancreatic cancer cells in nutrient depleted conditions by targeting the mitochondria. Schultz CW, McCarthy GA, … DuHadaway JB, … Prendergast GC, et al. Mol Cancer Ther. 2021 Nov;20(11):2166-2176.
- IDO1 Signaling Through GCN2 in a Subpopulation of Gr-1+ Cells Shifts the IFNγ/IL6 Balance to Promote Neovascularization. Dey S, Mondal A, DuHadaway JB, Sutanto-Ward E, Laury-Kleintop LD, Thomas S, Prendergast GC, Mandik-Nayak L, Muller AJ. Cancer Immunol Res. 2021 May;9(5):514-528.
- Advanced Age Increases Immunosuppression in the Brain and Decreases Immunotherapeutic Efficacy in Subjects with Glioblastoma. Ladomersky E, Zhai L, … Prendergast GC, et al. Clin Cancer Res. 2020 Oct 1;26(19):5232-5245.
- Differential Roles of IDO1 and IDO2 in T and B Cell Inflammatory Immune Responses. Merlo L, DuHadaway J, Montgomery J, Peng WD, Prendergast G, Muller A, Mandik-Nayak L. Front Immunol. 2020. doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2020.01861.
- Reliable detection of indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase-1 in murine cells and tissues. Thomas S, Laury-Kleintop L, Prendergast GC. Methods Enzymol. 2019;629:219-33.
- Immune control by amino acid catabolism during tumorigenesis and therapy. Lemos H, Huang L, Prendergast GC, Mellor AL. Nat Rev Cancer. 2019 Mar;19(3):162-175. Review.
- Diaryl hydroxylamines as pan or dual inhibitors of IDO1, IDO2 and tryptophan dioxygenase. Winters M, DuHadaway JB, Pham KN, Lewis-Ballester A, Badir S, Wai J, Sheikh E, Yeh SR, Prendergast GC, Muller AJ, Malachowski WP. Eur J Med Chem. 2018 Nov 14;162:455-64.
- Host IDO2 gene status influences tumor progression and radiotherapy response in KRAS-driven sporadic pancreatic cancers. Nevler A, Muller AJ, Sutanto-Ward E, DuHadaway JB, Nagatomo K, … Mandik-Nayak L, Winter JM, Yeo CJ, Prendergast GC, Brody JR. Clin Cancer Res. 2018 Sep 28. doi: 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-18-0814.
- Indoximod: An Immunometabolic Adjuvant That Empowers T Cell Activity in Cancer. Fox E, Oliver T, Rowe M, Thomas S, Zakharia Y, Gilman PB, Muller AJ, Prendergast GC. Front Oncol. 2018 Sep 11;8:370.
- Inhibiting IDO pathways to treat cancer: lessons from the ECHO-301 trial and beyond. Muller AJ, Manfredi MG, Zakharia Y, Prendergast GC. Semin Immunopathol. 2018 Sep 10.
- A Sub-Type of Familial Pancreatic Cancer: Evidence and Implications of Loss-of-Function Polymorphisms in Indoleamine-2,3-Dioxygenase-2. Nevler A, Muller AJ, Cozzitorto JA, Goetz A, Winter JM, Yeo TP, Lavu H, Yeo CJ, Prendergast GC, Brody JR. J Am Coll Surg. 2018 Feb 7. doi.org/10.1016/j.jamcollsurg.2017.12.052.
- Indoleamine 2,3-Dioxygenase and Its Therapeutic Inhibition in Cancer. Prendergast GC, Malachowski WJ, Mondal A, Scherle P, Muller AJ. Int Rev Cell Mol Biol. 2018;336:175-203.
- CCR5 governs DNA damage and breast cancer stem cell expansion. Jiao X, Velasco-Velázquez MA, Wang M, Li Z, Rui H, Peck AR, Korkola JE, Chen X, Xu S, DuHadaway JB, Guerrero-Rodriguez S, Addya S, Sicoli D, Mu Z, Zhang G, Stucky A, Zhang X, Cristofanilli M, Fatatis A, Gray JW, Zhong JF, Prendergast GC, Pestell RG. Cancer Res. 2018 Jan 22. doi: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-17-0915.
- Inflammatory Reprogramming with IDO1 Inhibitors: Turning Immunologically Unresponsive 'Cold' Tumors 'Hot'. Prendergast GC, Mondal A, Dey S, Laury-Kleintop LD, Muller AJ. Trends Cancer. 2018 Jan;4(1):38-58.
- Discovery of IDO1 Inhibitors: From Bench to Bedside. Prendergast GC, Malachowski WP, DuHadaway JB, Muller AJ. Cancer Res. 2017 Dec 15;77(24):6795-6811.
- Investigation of the Tissue Distribution and Physiological Roles of Indoleamine 2,3-Dioxygenase-2. Jusof FF, Bakmiwewa SM, Weiser S, Too LK, Metz R, Prendergast GC, Fraser ST, Hunt NH, Ball HJ. 2017 Int J Tryptophan Res. 2017 Oct 9;10.
- RhoB blockade selectively inhibits autoantibody production in autoimmune models of rheumatoid arthritis and lupus. Mandik-Nayak L, DuHadaway JB, Mulgrew J, Pigott E, Manley K, Sedano S, Prendergast GC, Laury-Kleintop LD. Dis Model Mech. 2017 Sep 7.
- The Host Microbiome Regulates and Maintains Human Health: A Primer and Perspective for Non-Microbiologists. Thomas S, Izard J, Walsh E, Batich K, Chongsathidkiet P, Clarke G, Sela DA, Muller AJ, Mullin JM, Albert K, Gilligan JP, DiGuilio K, Dilbarova R, Alexander W, Prendergast GC. Cancer Res. 2017 Mar 14.
- Therapeutic antibody targeting of indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO2) inhibits autoimmune arthritis. Merlo LM, Grabler S, DuHadaway JB, Pigott E, Manley K, Prendergast GC, Laury-Kleintop LD, Mandik-Nayak L. Clin Immunol. 2017 Feb 20;179:8-16.
- IDO1 is an Integral Mediator of Inflammatory Neovascularization. Mondal A, Smith C, DuHadaway JB, Sutanto-Ward E, Prendergast GC, Bravo-Nuevo A, Muller AJ. EBioMedicine. 2016 Dec;14:74-82.
- A Milestone Review on How Macrophages Affect Tumor Growth. Caux C, Ramos RN, Prendergast GC, Bendriss-Vermare N, Menetrier-Caux C. Cancer Res. 2016 Nov 15;76(22):6439-6442.
- Preliminary evaluation of a predictive blood assay to identify patients at high risk of chemotherapy-induced nausea. Kutner T, Kunkel E, Wang Y, George K, Zeger EL, Ali ZA, Prendergast GC, Gilman PB, Wallon UM. Support Care Cancer. 2016 Oct 12.
- IDO2 Modulates T Cell-Dependent Autoimmune Responses through a B Cell-Intrinsic Mechanism. Merlo LM, DuHadaway JB, Grabler S, Prendergast GC, Muller AJ, Mandik-Nayak L. J Immunol. 2016 Jun 1;196(11):4487-97.
- Hum Mol Genet.BIN1 regulates BACE1 intracellular trafficking and amyloid & beta production. Miyagawa T, Ebinuma I, Morohashi Y, ... Prendergast GC, Tomita T. 2016 May 14. [Epub ahead of print]
- BIN1 regulates BACE1 intracellular trafficking and amyloid & beta; production. Miyagawa T, Ebinuma I, Morohashi Y, ... Prendergast GC. Hum Mol Genet. 2016 May 14.
- Antimetabolite TTL-315 selectively kills glucose-deprived cancer cells and enhances responses to cytotoxic chemotherapy in preclinical models of cancer. DuHadaway J, Prendergast GC. Oncotarget. 2016 Feb 16;7(7):7372-80.
- O-alkylhydroxylamines as rationally-designed mechanism-based inhibitors of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-1. Malachowski WP, Winters M, DuHadaway JB, ... Prendergast GC, Muller AJ. Eur J Med Chem. 2016 Jan 27;108:564-76.
- Accumulation of an endogenous tryptophan-derived metabolite in colorectal and breast cancers. Puccetti, P., Fallarino, F., Italiano, A., ... Prendergast, G.C., et al. 2015. PLoS ONE 10, e0122046.
- Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase pathways in pathogenic inflammation and immune escape in cancer. Prendergast, G.C., Smith, C., Thomas, S., Mandik-Nayak, L., Laury-Kleintop, L.D., Metz, R. and Muller, A.J. 2014.Cancer Immunol. Immunother. 63, 721-735. Cover article
- IDO is a nodal pathogenic driver of lung cancer development and metastasis. Smith, C., Chang, M.-Y., Parker, K., Beury, D., DuHadaway, J., Flick, H., Boulden, J., Sutanto-Ward, E., Soler, A.P., Laury-Kleintop, L., Mandik-Nayak, L., Metz, R., Ostrand-Rosenberg, S., Prendergast, G.C.* and Muller, A.J.* 2012. Cancer Discov. 2, 722-735. *Co-senior authors.
- IDO inhibits a tryptophan sufficiency signal needed to stimulate mTOR: a novel IDO effector pathway targeted by 1-methyl-D-tryptophan. Metz, R., Rust, S., DuHadaway, J.B., Mautino, M.R., Munn, D.H., Vahanian, N.N., Link, C.J. and Prendergast, G.C. 2012. OncoImmunology 1, 1460-1468.
- Why tumours eat tryptophan. Prendergast, G.C. 2011. Nature 478, 192-194.
- Immunotherapeutic suppression of IDO and tumor growth with ethyl pyruvate. Muller, A.J., DuHadaway, J.B., Jaller, D., Curtis, P., Metz, R. and Prendergast, G.C.. 2010. Cancer Res. 70, 1845-1853.
- Non-hematopoietic expression of IDO is critical for inflammatory tumor promotion. Muller, A.J., DuHadaway, J.B., Chang, M.Y., Ramalingam, A., Sutanto-Ward, E., Boulden, J., Mandik-Nayak, L., Gilmour, S.K. and Prendergast, G.C. 2010. Cancer Immunol. Immunother. 59, 1655-1663.
- Genotyping and expression analysis of IDO2 in human pancreatic cancer: a novel, active target. Witkiewicz, A.K., Costantino, C.L., Metz, R., Muller, A.J., Prendergast, G.C., Yeo, C.J., and Brody, J.R. 2009. J. Amer. Coll. Surg. 2008, 781-787.
- Chronic inflammation that facilitates tumor progression creates local immune suppression by inducing indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase. Muller, A.J., Sharma, M.D., Chandler, P.R., DuHadaway, J.B., ... Prendergast, G.C.* and Mellor, A.L.* 2008. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105, 17073-17078. *Co-senior authors
- Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase in T cell tolerance and tumoral immune escape. Katz, J.B., Muller, A.J., and Prendergast, G.C. 2008. Immunol. Rev. 222, 206-221.
- Antitumor properties of chemopreventive natural product brassinin are based upon inhibition of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO). Banerjee, T., DuHadaway, J.B., Gaspari, P., Sutanto-Ward, E., Munn, D.H., Mellor, A.L., Malachowski, W.P., Prendergast, G.C. and Muller, A.J. 2008. Oncogene 27, 2851-2857.
- Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase is the anticancer target for a novel series of potent naphthoquinone-based inhibitors. Kumar, S., Malachowski, W.P., DuHadaway, J.B., LaLonde, J.M., Carroll, P.J., Jaller, D., Metz, R., Prendergast, G.C., and Muller, A.J. 2008. J. Med. Chem. 51, 1706-1718.
- Immune escape as a fundamental trait of cancer: focus on IDO. Prendergast, G.C. 2008. Oncogene 27, 3889-3900.
- Inhibition of IDO in dendritic cells by stereoisomers of 1-methyl-tryptophan correlates with anti-tumor responses. Hou, D.-Y., Muller, A.J., Sharma, M., DuHadaway, J., Banerjee, T., Johnson, M., Mellor, A.L., Prendergast, G.C., and Munn, D.H. 2007.Cancer Res. 67, 792-801.
- Novel tryptophan catabolic enzyme IDO2 is the preferred biochemical target of the antitumor IDO inhibitory compound D-1MT. Metz, R., DuHadaway, J.B., Kamasani, U., Laury-Kleintop, L., Muller, A.J., and Prendergast, G.C. 2007.Cancer Res. 67, 7082-7087.
- Bin1 ablation increases cancer susceptibility during aging, particularly lung cancer. Chang, M.Y., Boulden, J., Sutanto-Ward E., DuHadaway, J.B., Katz, J.B., Wang, L., Meyer, T.B., Soler, A.P., Muller, A.J., and Prendergast, G.C. 2007.Cancer Res. 67, 7605-7612.
- Structure based development of phenylimidazole-derived inhibitors of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase. Kumar, S., Jaller, D., Patel, B., LaLonde, J.M., DuHadaway, J.B., Malachowski, W.P., Prendergast, G.C. and Muller, A.J. 2008. J. Med. Chem. 51, 4968-4977.
- Inhibition of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase, a target of the cancer suppression gene Bin1, potentiates cancer chemotherapy. Muller, A.J., DuHadaway, J.B., Donover, P.S., Sutanto-Ward, E., and Prendergast, GC 2005. Nature Med. 11, 312-319.
- Marrying immunotherapy with chemotherapy: why say IDO? Muller, A.J. and Prendergast, G.C. 2005. Cancer Res. 65, 8065-8068.
- Diet effects on colonic health influence the efficacy of Bin1 mAb immunotherapy for ulcerative colitis. Thomas S, Dilbarov N, Kelly J, Mercogliano G, Prendergast GC. Sci Rep. 2023 Jul 21;13(1):11802. doi: 10.1038/s41598-023-38830-2.
- Gut-brain connections in neurodegenerative disease: immunotherapeutic targeting of Bin1 in inflammatory bowel disease and Alzheimer’s disease. Thomas S, Prendergast GC. Front. Pharmacol. 2023 July;14. https://doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2023.1183932
- Bin1 targeted immunotherapy alters the status of the enteric neurons and the microbiome during ulcerative colitis treatment. Thomas S, Mercogliano G, Prendergast GC. PLoS One. 2022 Nov 2;17(11):e0276910. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0276910
- Bin1 antibody lowers the expression of phosphorylated Tau in Alzheimer's disease. Thomas S, Hoxha K, Tran A, Prendergast GC. J Cell Biochem 2019 Jun 18.
- Capture and display of antibodies secreted by hybridoma cells enables fluorescent on-cell screening. Puligedda RD, Sharma R, Al-Saleem FH, Kouiavskaia D, Velu AB, Kattala CD, Prendergast GC, Lynch DR, Chumakov K, Dessain SK. MAbs. 2019 Feb 22:1-13.
- Preclinical study of the long-range safety and anti-inflammatory effects of high-dose oral meglumine. Manley K, Bravo-Nuevo A, Minton AR, Sedano S, Marcy A, Reichman M, Tobia A, Artlett CM, Gilmour SK, Laury-Kleintop LD, Prendergast GC. J Cell Biochem. 2019 Feb 27.
- RhoB antibody alters retinal vascularization in models of murine retinopathy. Almonte-Baldonado R, Bravo-Nuevo A, Gerald D, Benjamin LE, Prendergast GC, Laury-Kleintop LD. J Cell Biochem. 2018 Dec 9. doi: 10.1002/jcb.28213.
- Intestinal barrier tightening by a cell-penetrating antibody to Bin1, a candidate target for immunotherapy of ulcerative colitis. Thomas S, Hoxha K, Alexander W, Gilligan J, Dilbarova R, Whittaker K, Kossenkov A, Prendergast GC Mullin JM. J Cell Biochem. 2018 Sep 30. doi: 10.1002/jcb.27716.
- Novel colitis immunotherapy targets Bin1 to improve colon cell barrier function. Thomas S, Mercado JM, DuHadaway J, DiGuilio K, Mullin JM and Prendergast GC. Dig Dis Sci. 2016 Feb;61(2):423-32.
- From the Editor’s Chair: A perspective on cancer as an abortive autoimmune response to altered-self. Prendergast GC. 2015. Cancer Res. 75, 3-4.
- IDO2 in immunomodulation and autoimmune disease. Prendergast GC, Metz, R., Muller, A.J., Merlo, L.M.F. and Mandik-Nayak, L. 2014.Front Immunol. 5, 585-590.
- IDO2 is critical for IDO1-mediated T cell regulation and exerts a non-redundant function in inflammation. Metz, R., Smith, C., DuHadaway, J.B., Chandler, P., Baban, B., Merlo, L.M.F., Pigott, E., Keough, M.P., Rust, S., Mellor, A.L., Mandik-Nayak, L., Muller, A.J. and Prendergast, G.C. 2014. Int. Immunol. 26, 357-367.
- IDO2 is a critical mediator of autoantibody production and inflammatory pathogenesis in a mouse model of autoimmune arthritis. Merlo, L.M.F., Pigott, E., DuHadaway, J.B., Grabler, S., Metz, R., Prendergast, G.C. and Mandik-Nayak, L. 2014. J. Immunol. 192, 2082-2090. Cover article
- Inhibition of the IDO pathway with 1-methyl-tryptophan synergizes with methotrexate to alleviate arthritis in the K/BxN mouse model of arthritis. Pigott, E., DuHadaway, J.B., Muller, A.J., Gilmour, S.K., Prendergast, G.C. and Mandik-Nayak, L. 2014. Autoimmunity 47, 409-418.
- Aryl hydrocarbon receptor control of a disease tolerance defense pathway. Bessede, A., Gargaro, M., Pallotta, T., ... DuHadaway, J.B., Prendergast GC, et al. 2014. Nature 511, 184-190.
- Bin1 attenuation suppresses inflammatory colitis by enforcing intestinal barrier function. Chang, M.-Y., Boulden, J., Valenzano, M.C., Soler, A.P., Muller, A.J., Mullin, J.M. and Prendergast, G.C. 2012. Digest. Dis. Sci. 57, 1813-1821.
- The immunoregulatory enzyme IDO paradoxically drives B cell-mediated autoimmunity. Scott, G.N., DuHadaway, J., Pigott, E., Ridge, N., Prendergast, G.C., Muller, A.J., and Mandik-Nayak, L. 2009. J. Immunol. 182, 7509-7517.