Prevention Guidelines for Children and Teenagers

Here are the screening tests and immunizations for children more than 2 years old. Although you and your health care provider may decide that a different schedule is best for your child, this plan can guide your discussion.

Screening

Who needs it

How often

Dental caries and other dental problems

All children ages 1 year to adolescence*

Every six months

Prevention of dental caries in preschool children

Children ages 6 months to 5 years whose primary drinking water source is deficient in fluoride

At routine exams; first visit recommended at age 1 year

Elevated lead levels

All children at 1 year and children ages 1 to 5 years who are at average and increased risk

Yearly*

Hearing loss

All children

At age 4 or 5; before they start school*

HIV

All adolescents at increased risk for infection

At routine checkups

Iron deficiency anemia

Children ages 1 to 5 who are at increased risk

Yearly

Obesity

Children ages 6 and older

At routine exams

Hearing loss

All children

At age 4 or 5; before they start school*

Vision impairment

All children

At age 4 or 5, and again during adolescence

Immunization

Who needs it

How often

Human papillomavirus (HPV)

HPV2 or HPV4, all females& ages 11 and 12 years; HPV4, all males ages 9 to 18 years

Three doses total; the second dose given two months after the first dose, and the third dose given six months after the first dose

Diphtheria

All children

Dose between ages 4 and 6 years, and booster between ages 11 and 12 years

Tetanus toxoids

All children

Dose between ages 4 and 6 years, and booster between ages 11 and 12 years

Acellular pertussis

All children

Dose between ages 4 and 6 years, and booster between ages 11 and 12 years

Measles, mumps, rubella (MMR)

All children

Second dose recommended between ages 4 and 6 years

Chickenpox (varicella)

All children

Second dose recommended between ages 4 and 6 years

Pneumococcal (polysaccharide)

Those at risk

Given once 2 or more months after last dose of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, based on child's medical condition

Influenza (flu), seasonal

All children

Yearly, during flu season

Inactivated poliovirus

All children

A final dose between ages 4 and 6 years if the series was completed before age 4

Meningococcal (conjugate)

All children

One dose between ages 11 and 12, or by age 18 if not previously vaccinated; high-risk groups should receive one dose between ages 2 and 10

Hepatitis A

Those at risk or not fully vaccinated

Should be fully vaccinated by age 2; if not, child can be vaccinated at subsequent visits; second dose given at least six months after first dose

Hepatitis B (Recombivax HB)

All children not previously vaccinated

Three doses series: For Monovalent Hep B, the second dose is given 4 weeks after the first dose, and the final dose is given 16 weeks after the first dose

Two dose series: Recombivax HB for children ages 11 to 15 years, given at least 4 months apart

Counseling

Who needs it

How often

Behavioral, to prevent sexually transmitted infections

All sexually active adolescents

At routine exams

Depression (major depressive disorder)

Adolescents ages 12 to 18

At routine exams

Screening guidelines from the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force

* Screening guidelines from the American Academy of Pediatrics

Immunization schedule from the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)

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