Urology is the branch of medicine concerned with the urinary tract in both genders, and with the genital tract or reproductive system in the male. Urogenital is a word that refers to the urinary and genital organs.

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The medical specialty of Obstetrics and Gynecology specializes in the reproduction (genital) system of females. Nephrology is the medical specialty concerned with the kidneys.

According to the American Kidney Fund, chronic kidney diseases affect more than 31 million people. More than 85,000 US adults die each year from kidney failure. The number of people affected by these diseases is expected to grow as the populations of older adults and racial and ethnic minorities, groups disproportionately affected by the diseases, increase.

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The most serious and debilitating of kidney and urinary tract diseases includes end-stage renal disease (ESRD); kidney stone disease; urinary incontinence; benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH); interstitial cystitis; urinary tract infection; and polycystic kidney disease.

Other diseases also have a tremendous impact on the disability and death associated with kidney and urologic diseases, including diabetes and hypertension.

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