Produced mainly in the testicles, the male hormone testosterone causes prostate cancer cells to grow. Reducing testosterone levels can make the prostate cancer shrink and become less active.
The goal of hormone therapy is to lower the level of male hormones in the body, particularly testosterone. Hormone therapy does not cure the cancer and is often used to treat persons whose cancer has spread or recurred after treatment.
There are several types of hormone therapy, including the following:
orchiectomy - the surgical removal of the testicles to prevent the male hormones that stimulate growth of the prostate cancer from being produced.
LHRH (luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone) analogs - drugs that decrease the amount of testosterone produced in a man's body by interfering with the normal chemical signals sent from the pituitary gland in the brain to the testicles. Drugs include Lupron, Viadur, Eligard, Zoladex, and Trelstar.
anti-androgens - substances that block the body's ability to use testosterone, because even after orchiectomy or LHRH-analog treatment, a small amount of testosterone may still be produced in the body. Other hormonal drugs may be used for periods of time during treatment. Drugs include Eulexin, Casodex, and Nilandron.
LHRH antagonist (degarelix) - may cause fewer problems when first given than LHRH analogs. It is given by injection under the skin.
As each person's individual medical profile and diagnosis is different, so is his/her reaction to treatment. Side effects may be severe, mild, or absent. Be sure to discuss with your cancer care team any/all possible side effects of treatment before the treatment begins.
Possible side effects of hormone therapy for prostate cancer may include the following:
a degree of impotence (inability to achieve or maintain an erection)
diminished libido (desire for sex)
enlargement of the breasts
The duration of hormone therapy varies, but usually lasts a period of a few months, depending on the individual situation. For men with locally advanced prostate cancer (spread outside the gland), long-term hormone therapy (an additional two years) may control the disease better than short-term hormone therapy. Always consult your physician for more information regarding hormone therapy treatment.
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