When Your Child Has Type 1 Diabetes

Learning that your child has type 1 diabetes can be a shock. Suddenly, your world may seem to revolve around managing the condition. You may feel overwhelmed and unsure of what you can do to help.

With knowledge, practice and a supportive health care team, however, you can take care of your child without diabetes taking over your lives.

The pancreas of a person with type 1 diabetes doesn’t produce insulin. Without this hormone, the body can’t use glucose, or blood sugar, for energy. It builds up in the blood and eventually can damage internal organs, nerves and blood vessels. About one in every 400 to 600 children and teens has the condition. But, no one knows exactly what causes it to develop.

Understand testing and insulin

“Testing your child’s blood sugar several times a day gives you a road map for treatment,” says Lori Laffel, M.D., from the Joslin Diabetes Center.

Selecting a reliable blood glucose meter that’s easy to use is important. Your child’s health care provider may be able to offer advice on choosing and using one.

Your child also needs to receive insulin regularly. That may mean your child will need several shots a day or will wear an external pump round the clock. Learning to give injections or use a pump may seem daunting. With practice and assistance from your child’s health care provider, however, you -- and eventually your child -- can master either technique.

A healthy menu

Knowing what and how much your child eats -- and when -- helps determine his or her insulin needs. But, you don’t have to serve special foods. The best choice for your whole family is a healthy, well-balanced diet that's low in fat, salt and added sugar.

Is there a dietitian on your child’s health care team? He or she may be able to help you learn how to create healthy eating plans and count calories.

Encourage physical activity

Your child should get 30 to 60 minutes of moderate exercise a day. Once your health care provider has given the OK, sign your child up for a summer sports league, go for family bike rides or have your child walk the dog. Because exercise may make your child's blood sugar level drop, you need to test it before he or she starts an activity and during exercise, if the session is longer than an hour. (This could occur, for instance, during a game or sports practice.) You should also check your child's blood sugar in the hours after exercise, as well.

Hypoglycemia

Hypoglycemia occurs whenever your child has too much insulin or too little blood sugar, the American Diabetes Association (ADA) says. This is most likely during and after exercise, and overnight, during sleep.

These are symptoms of hypoglycemia during the day:

  • Weakness

  • Nervous feeling

  • Shakiness, or a fine tremor

  • Sweating

  • Headache

  • Hunger

  • Unconsciousness

  • Seizure

These are symptoms of hypoglycemia at night:

  • Damp pajamas and sheets

  • Nightmares

  • Restless sleep

  • Headache upon waking

  • Tiredness upon waking

  • Unusually high blood sugar reading in the morning

You can determine whether your child has nighttime hypoglycemia by waking him or her at 2 or 3 a.m. for several nights and checking the blood sugar level, the ADA says. The level is too low, treat the low blood sugar at that time, but be sure to tell your doctor. The doctor may make changes in insulin dose or the timing of meals.

Make sure your child carries a snack at all times to treat hypoglycemia. According to the ADA, these foods contain 10 to 15 grams of carbohydrates, enough to treat the condition:

  • Juice box of orange or grape (1/2 to 3/4 cup)

  • 2 to 4 pieces of hard candy

  • 5 gumdrops

  • 1 to 2 tablespoons of honey

  • 6 ounces of regular, non-diet soda (about half a can)

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