1. How much blood do your kidneys filter daily?
a. 15 gallons
b. 25 gallons
c. 50 gallons
d. 125 gallons
2. Your kidneys are what part of the body?
a. central nervous system
b. respiratory system
c. gastrointestinal tract
d. genitourinary system
3. What is the most common cause of kidney failure?
a. drug abuse and smoking
b. high blood pressure
d. b and c
4. How do most kidney-damaging diseases affect the kidneys?
a. They damage nephrons, the kidney's filtering mechanisms
b. They damage tubules, the small tubes within the nephrons
c. They damage urethras
d. They damage all tissue
5. Which of these races is the most likely to have high blood pressure, which contributes to kidney failure?
b. African Americans
6. Which of these over-the-counter medicines can be toxic to kidneys?
d. all of these
7. If you have impaired renal function, you should monitor which of these in your diet?
c. food dyes
d. a and b
8. The most common kind of kidney stone stems from a chemical reaction that causes minerals in the urine to crystallize. Which of these kinds of stones make up the majority of those that develop?
a. calcium stones
b. cystine stones
c. nitrogen stones
d. none of the above
1. c, 50 gallons. Kidneys process about 50 gallons (200 quarts) of blood a day. Of that amount, approximately one-half to two quarts of waste products and water are removed from the blood a day and excreted in the form of urine.
2. d, genitourinary system. The kidneys are complex organs that both filter wastes from the blood and secrete hormones into the blood that help control blood pressure, and regulate electrolytes and calcium metabolism.
3. d, b and c. High blood pressure damages the kidneys' small blood vessels so they're unable to filter blood. Too much sugar in the blood over long periods of time also damages the delicate vessels in the glomerulus, eventually causing kidney failure. Diabetes and hypertension are the leading causes of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and diabetes is the most common reason that people need kidney transplants.
4. a, damage nephrons. The nephrons lose their ability to filter.
5. b, African Americans. High blood pressure in African American is the second leading cause of kidney failure.
6. d, all of the above. Used in high enough doses over extended periods of time, these painkillers can damage the kidneys.
8. a, calcium stones. The most common type of kidney stone contain calcium.
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