If you live in an area where winter brings snow, slush and ice, the best advice about driving in these conditions is not to. But if you must venture out, be prepared.
Many newer vehicles have added safety features that can take some of the hazard out of winter driving. But it is important to know how to use optional equipment such as an anti-lock brake system (ABS).
In slippery conditions, using the proper emergency braking technique can mean the difference between a close call and a serious collision:
On slick or snow-covered roads, drive slower and maintain a greater distance between your car and the vehicle ahead of you.
Be familiar with your car's brakes.
The ABS prevents skidding and wheel lock-up. With ABS, a sensor located in each wheel detects when the wheel is about to stop rotating, lose traction and skid. The ABS then slightly releases braking pressure so the wheel can continue to rotate. This helps maintain steering during hard or panic braking.
Unlike traditional brakes, anti-lock brakes should never be pumped, according to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA).
To maximize the effectiveness of your anti-lock brakes, this is what you should do:
Keep the heel of your right foot on the floor and use your toes to apply steady pressure to the brake pedal.
Maintain pressure and let the ABS adjust brake pressure automatically. Do not remove your foot from the brake.
If your car does not have anti-lock brakes, follow these tips:
Use the heel-toe method.
Apply steady pressure until just short of the wheels locking up.
Quickly and gently release the brakes. If you remove your heel from the floor, the weight of your entire leg could apply too much pressure and cause the wheel to lock up.
If the wheels lock, quickly release brake pressure, then immediately reapply it using less force.
Before bad weather arrives, the NHTSA recommends that you:
Have your vehicle thoroughly inspected by a certified technician. The motor oil, radiator, tires, battery and ignition system all must be in top condition to perform well year round.
Prepare a winter survival kit that includes flashlight, blankets, medical kit, tool kit, booster cables, warning device (flares or reflective triangle), a bag of sand or cat litter for traction, cloth or paper towels, snow brush, flat fixer, washer fluid and a small shovel.
Try to keep your fuel tank at least half full to minimize condensation. Carry a can of gasoline deicer, if you live in a very cold climate.
Follow these rules when you do drive:
Decrease your speed.
Increase stopping distances.
Safety experts say the first two recommendations are essential because it is impossible to know what's beneath a layer of snow until you apply your brakes. Also, "black ice" -- that thin, transparent coating -- sometimes appears as if it is merely a wet surface.
Proper visibility means more than just "peephole vision" driving, or clearing just the driver's side of your windshield. Clear snow, ice and slush from all surfaces of your car, including the windshield, windows, mirrors and body before driving. Sheets of snow on your hood or roof can peel off while driving and obscure your vision or that of the driver behind you. A film of dried slush on your headlights can dim them.
© 2014 Main Line Health