Spasmodic Dysphonia

What is spasmodic dysphonia?

Spasmodic dysphonia, also called laryngeal dystonia, is a voice disorder. It is characterized by involuntary spasms or movements in the muscles of the larynx, which causes the voice to break, and have a tight, strained, or strangled sound.

Difficulties that result from spasmodic dysphonia range from occasional problems with saying a word or two to complete inability to communicate.

Spasmodic dysphonia most often affects women, particularly between the ages of 30 and 50.

What are the different types of spasmodic dysphonia?

There are three types of spasmodic dysphonia:

  • adductor spasmodic dysphonia

    Characterized by sudden involuntary spasms that cause the vocal cords to slam together and stiffen. The spasms interfere with vibration of the vocal cords and production of sound is difficult. Stress can make spasms more severe.



    Speech sounds are strained and full of effort. Spasms do not occur when whispering, laughing, singing, speaking at a high pitch, or speaking while breathing in.

  • abductor spasmodic dysphonia

    Characterized by sudden involuntary spasms that cause the vocal cords to open. Vibration cannot occur when cords are open so production of sound is difficult. Also, the open position allows air to escape during speech.



    Speech sounds are weak, quiet, and whispery. Spasms do not occur when laughing or singing.

  • mixed spasmodic dysphonia

    Characterized by symptoms of both adductor and abductor spasmodic dysphonia.

What causes spasmodic dysphonia?

The exact cause of spasmodic dysphonia is not known. Most cases are believed to be caused by a nervous system disorder, and may occur with other movement disorders. Spasmodic dysphonia may be a genetic disorder, or may begin following an upper respiratory infection, injury to the larynx, a long period of voice use, or stress.

How is spasmodic dysphonia diagnosed?

In addition to a complete medical history and physical examination, examination of the vocal folds by fiberoptic nasolaryngoscopy may be performed. This procedure involves using a lighted tube, passed though the nose into the larynx to evaluate movement of the vocal folds during speech.

Treatment for spasmodic dysphonia:

Specific treatment for spasmodic dysphonia will be determined by your physician based on:

  • your age, overall health, and medical history

  • extent of the disease

  • your tolerance for specific medications, procedures, or therapies

  • expectations for the course of the disease

  • your opinion or preference

The goal of treatment is to reduce symptoms of the disorder. Surgery to cut one of the nerves of the vocal fold has been used, as well as counseling. Some success has been achieved with the injection of the botulinum toxin directly into the affected muscles of the larynx. Speech therapy is also an important part of treatment of spasmodic dysphonia.

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