Thrombosis occurs when clots obstruct veins (blood vessels that carry blood from the body back into the heart) or arteries (blood vessels that carry oxygenated blood away from the heart to the body). Venous thrombosis is when the blood clot obstructs a vein, and arterial thrombosis is when the blood clot obstructs an artery.
Venous thrombosis may be the result of the following:
disease or injury to the veins in the legs
immobility for any reason
inherited disorders or inherited predisposition
Pooling (stasis) of blood in the legs and subsequent clotting can result in varicose veins. Clots in the legs may break loose and travel to the lungs, causing pulmonary clots that can result in respiratory distress, pain, and in extreme cases, death.
Arterial thrombosis may be the result of arteriosclerosis (hardening of the arteries where fatty or calcium deposits cause the arterial walls to thicken) of blood vessels (clots form on abnormal blood vessel surfaces).
When arterial thrombosis occurs in the coronary arteries (the two that come from the aorta to provide blood to the heart muscle), it can lead to heart attacks. When arterial thrombosis occurs in the cerebral (brain) circulation, it can lead to strokes or lack of oxygen to other organs.
The following are the most common symptoms of thrombosis. However, each individual may experience symptoms differently. Symptoms may include:
increased blood clots in arteries and veins
pain isolated to one leg (usually the calf or inner thigh)
swelling in the extremity
The symptoms of thrombosis may resemble other blood disorders or medical problems. Always consult your physician for a diagnosis.
In addition to a complete medical history and physical examination, diagnostic procedures for thrombosis may include additional blood tests including hypercoagulability panels. Dye injection and catheterization is also used to diagnose the presence of arterial and venous thrombosis.
Specific treatment for thrombosis will be determined by your physician based on:
your age, overall health, and medical history
extent and type of thrombosis
your tolerance for specific medications, procedures, or therapies
expectations for the course of the disease
your opinion or preference
Treatment may include:
anticoagulant medications, such as coumadin and heparin
catheters (to expand the width, or lumen, of involved vessels)
medications, such as tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) and/or enzymes, such as streptokinase (to dissolve clots)
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