Many people who have a difficult time expressing and managing angry feelings. What causes people to become angry? How can they respond to stressful situations more productively?
Many people think that anger is caused by hormonal changes or brain activity. This is only partly true. Researchers have found that while hormones play a role in an angry response, there is always a cognitive (thinking) component.
Some people think that humans are innately aggressive or warlike. While our behavior is sometimes hostile toward others, anger is not part of our basic nature.
Frustration may lead to aggression, but it is not inevitable. Some people respond to frustrating events with anger, while others don't. Anger is only one response to frustration. In many cultures, people are taught to respond to frustration in other ways.
Since Freud's day, psychologists have disagreed about the value of venting feelings. It may surprise you to know that today's research shows that expressing anger often results in more irritation and tension rather than feeling more calm.
Giving vent to anger can produce the following kinds of harmful effects:
Your blood pressure increases.
The original problem is worse rather than better.
You come across as unfriendly and intimidating.
Anger is our response to stress. Many times we feel anger to avoid feeling some other emotion, such as anxiety or hurt. Or we may feel angry when we are frustrated because we want something and can't have it. Sometimes, feeling angry is a way of mobilizing ourselves in the face of a threat.
Anger may be useful because it stops (blocks) stress. Here are two examples:
You are rushing all day in your home office to meet an impossible deadline. Your daughter bounces in after school and gives you a big hug as you furiously type on your computer. You snap, "Not now! Can't you see I'm busy?"
This explains why people often respond with anger when they experience the following kinds of stress:
Being in a hurry
Feeling abandoned or attacked
Feeling forced to do something you don't want to do
Feeling out of control
Guilt, shame or hurt
Here are some constructive things can you do to reduce stress-instead of becoming angry:
Squeeze a rubber ball.
Do relaxation exercises.
Get physical exercise.
Listen to your favorite music.
Make a joke.
Say it out loud.
State your needs assertively.
Take a nap.
Tell a friend about it.
An angry response often results when we are unhappy with someone else's behavior. Here are some other responses you can choose instead of flying off the handle:
Set limits. Let's say a friend hasn't returned a book you loaned to her. Now she wants to borrow another one. You could say, "I'm not going to be able to lend you this book until you return the first one."
Don't wait. When you realize that you're feeling annoyed by a situation, speak up. Don't wait until your annoyance escalates to anger.
Call a time-out. This is a very effective technique for breaking the sequence of behavior that leads to a blowup. It works best if it is discussed ahead of time and both people agree to use it. Here's how it works: Either person in an interaction can initiate time-out. One person makes the time-out gesture like a referee in a football game. The other person is obligated to return the gesture and stop talking.
Check it out. If anger is a response to personal pain, it makes sense to ask the other person, "What's hurting?"
Make positive statements. It may be helpful to memorize a few positive statements to say to yourself when your anger is being triggered. These statements can remind you that you can choose your behavior instead of reacting in a knee-jerk manner-for example, "I can take care of my own needs," "His needs are just as important as mine," and "I am able to make good choices."
If you are having a problem dealing with anger, call FIRSTCALL, Your Employee Assistance Program at 1.800.382.2377 for a free confidential appointment.
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